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Eiffel Tower – Wikipedia Jump to content Main menu Main menu move to sidebar hide Navigation Main pageContentsCurrent eventsRandom articleAbout WikipediaContact usDonate Contribute HelpLearn to editCommunity portalRecent changesUpload file Languages Language links are at the top of the page. Search Search Create account Log in Personal tools Create account Log in Pages for logged out editors learn more ContributionsTalk Contents move to sidebar hide (Top) 1History Toggle History subsection 1.1Origin 1.2Artists’ protest 1.3Construction 1.4Inauguration and the 1889 exposition 1.5Subsequent events 2Design Toggle Design subsection 2.1Material 2.2Wind and weather considerations 2.3Floors 2.3.1Ground floor 2.3.21st floor 2.3.32nd floor 2.3.43rd floor 2.4Lifts 2.5Engraved names 2.6Aesthetics 2.7Maintenance 3Communications Toggle Communications subsection 3.1FM radio 3.2Digital television 4Dimensions Toggle Dimensions subsection 4.1Height changes 5Taller structures Toggle Taller structures subsection 5.1Lattice towers taller than the Eiffel Tower 5.2Structures in France taller than the Eiffel Tower 6Tourism Toggle Tourism subsection 6.1Transport 6.2Popularity 7Illumination copyright 8Replicas 9See also 10References Toggle References subsection 10.1Notes 10.2Bibliography 11External links Toggle the table of contents Eiffel Tower 160 languages AfrikaansAlemannischአማርኛÆngliscالعربيةAragonésঅসমীয়াAsturianuAvañe’ẽAzərbaycancaتۆرکجهBasa BaliবাংলাBanjarBân-lâm-gúБашҡортсаБеларускаяБеларуская (тарашкевіца)Bikol CentralБългарскиBosanskiBrezhonegCatalàЧӑвашлаCebuanoČeštinaCymraegDanskDavvisámegiellaDeutschދިވެހިބަސްDolnoserbskiEestiΕλληνικάEspañolEsperantoEuskaraفارسیFiji HindiFøroysktFrançaisFryskGaeilgeGàidhligGalegoગુજરાતી𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî한국어HausaՀայերենहिन्दीHornjoserbsceHrvatskiIdoIlokanoBahasa IndonesiaInterlinguaÍslenskaItalianoעבריתJawaKabɩyɛಕನ್ನಡქართულიҚазақшаKernowekKiswahiliKotavaKurdîКыргызчаລາວLatinaLatviešuLëtzebuergeschLietuviųLigureLimburgsLingua Franca NovaLombardMagyarमैथिलीМакедонскиമലയാളംMaltiमराठीმარგალურიمصرىمازِرونیBahasa MelayuMirandésМонголမြန်မာဘာသာNederlandsNedersaksiesनेपालीनेपाल भाषा日本語NapulitanoНохчийнNorsk bokmålNorsk nynorskOccitanOʻzbekcha / ўзбекчаਪੰਜਾਬੀپنجابیپښتوភាសាខ្មែរPicardPiemontèisPinayuananPlattdüütschPolskiPortuguêsQaraqalpaqshaQırımtatarcaRomânăRumantschРусскийСаха тылаScotsSeelterskShqipSicilianuසිංහලSimple EnglishSlovenčinaSlovenščinaŚlůnskiکوردیСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиSundaSuomiSvenskaTagalogதமிழ்TaclḥitTaqbaylitТатарча / tatarçaతెలుగుไทยTürkçeTwiУкраїнськаاردوVènetoVepsän kel’Tiếng ViệtVolapükWest-VlamsWinaray吴语ייִדיש粵語ZazakiZeêuwsŽemaitėška中文 Edit links ArticleTalk English ReadView sourceView history Tools Tools move to sidebar hide Actions ReadView sourceView history General What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationCite this pageGet shortened URLWikidata item Print/export Download as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia Commons Coordinates: 48°51′29.6′′N 2°17′40.2′′E / 48.858222°N 2.294500°E / 48.858222; 2.294500 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France This article is about the landmark in Paris, France. For other uses, see Eiffel Tower (disambiguation). “300-metre tower” and “Tour Eiffel” redirect here. For other tall towers, see List of tallest towers. For other uses, see Tour Eiffel (disambiguation). Eiffel TowerTour Eiffel (French)Seen from the Champ de MarsRecord heightTallest in the world from 1889 to 1930[I]General informationTypeObservation towerBroadcasting towerLocation7th arrondissement, Paris, FranceCoordinates48°51′29.6′′N 2°17′40.2′′E / 48.858222°N 2.294500°E / 48.858222; 2.294500Construction started28 January 1887; 136 years ago (28 January 1887)Completed15 March 1889; 134 years ago (15 March 1889)Opening31 March 1889; 134 years ago (31 March 1889)OwnerCity of Paris, FranceManagementSociété d’Exploitation de la Tour Eiffel (SETE)HeightArchitectural300 m (984 ft)[1]Tip330 m (1,083 ft)Top floor276 m (906 ft)[1]Technical detailsFloor count4 (3 Accessible + 1 Residual)[2]Lifts/elevators8[3]Design and constructionArchitect(s)Stephen SauvestreStructural engineerMaurice KoechlinÉmile NouguierMain contractorCompagnie des Etablissements EiffelWebsitetoureiffel.paris/enReferencesI. ^ “Eiffel Tower”. Emporis. Archived from the original on 22 April 2016. UNESCO World Heritage SitePart ofParis, Banks of the SeineCriteriaCultural: i, ii, ivReference600Inscription1991 (15th Session) The Eiffel Tower (/ˈaɪfəl/ EYE-fəl; French: Tour Eiffel [tuʁ ɛfɛl] i) is a wrought-iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France. It is named after the engineer Gustave Eiffel, whose company designed and built the tower from 1887 to 1889. Locally nicknamed “La dame de fer” (French for “Iron Lady”), it was constructed as the centerpiece of the 1889 World’s Fair, and to crown the centennial anniversary of the French Revolution. Although initially criticised by some of France’s leading artists and intellectuals for its design, it has since become a global cultural icon of France and one of the most recognisable structures in the world.[4] The tower received 5,889,000 visitors in 2022.[5] The Eiffel Tower is the most visited monument with an entrance fee in the world:[6] 6.91 million people ascended it in 2015. It was designated a monument historique in 1964, and was named part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site (“Paris, Banks of the Seine”) in 1991.[7] The tower is 330 metres (1,083 ft) tall,[8] about the same height as an 81-storey building, and the tallest structure in Paris. Its base is square, measuring 125 metres (410 ft) on each side. During its construction, the Eiffel Tower surpassed the Washington Monument to become the tallest human-made structure in the world, a title it held for 41 years until the Chrysler Building in New York City was finished in 1930. It was the first structure in the world to surpass both the 200-metre and 300-metre mark in height. Due to the addition of a broadcasting aerial at the top of the tower in 1957, it is now taller than the Chrysler Building by 5.2 metres (17 ft). Excluding transmitters, the Eiffel Tower is the second tallest free-standing structure in France after the Millau Viaduct. The tower has three levels for visitors, with restaurants on the first and second levels. The top level’s upper platform is 276 m (906 ft) above the ground – the highest observation deck accessible to the public in the European Union. Tickets can be purchased to ascend by stairs or lift to the first and second levels. The climb from ground level to the first level is over 300 steps, as is the climb from the first level to the second, making the entire ascent a 600 step climb. Although there is a staircase to the top level, it is usually accessible only by lift. On this top, third level is a private apartment built for Gustave Eiffel’s private use. He decorated it with furniture by Jean Lachaise and invited friends such as Thomas Edison. History Origin The design of the Eiffel Tower is attributed to Maurice Koechlin and Émile Nouguier, two senior engineers working for the Compagnie des Établissements Eiffel. It was envisioned after discussion about a suitable centerpiece for the proposed 1889 Exposition Universelle, a world’s fair to celebrate the centennial of the French Revolution. In May 1884, working at home, Koechlin made a sketch of their idea, described by him as “a great pylon, consisting of four lattice girders standing apart at the base and coming together at the top, joined together by metal trusses at regular intervals”.[9] Eiffel initially showed little enthusiasm, but he did approve further study, and the two engineers then asked Stephen Sauvestre, the head of the company’s architectural department, to contribute to the design. Sauvestre added decorative arches to the base of the tower, a glass pavilion to the first level, and other embellishments. First drawing of the Eiffel Tower by Maurice Koechlin including size comparison with other Parisian landmarks such as Notre Dame de Paris, the Statue of Liberty, and the Vendôme Column The new version gained Eiffel’s support: he bought the rights to the patent on the design which Koechlin, Nougier, and Sauvestre had taken out, and the design was put on display at the Exhibition of Decorative Arts in the autumn of 1884 under the company name. On 30 March 1885, Eiffel presented his plans to the Société des Ingénieurs Civils; after discussing the technical problems and emphasising the practical uses of the tower, he finished his talk by saying the tower would symbolise [n]ot only the art of the modern engineer, but also the century of Industry and Science in which we are living, and for which the way was prepared by the great scientific movement of the eighteenth century and by the Revolution of 1789, to which this monument will be built as an expression of France’s gratitude.[10] Little progress was made until 1886, when Jules Grévy was re-elected as president of France and Édouard Lockroy was appointed as minister for trade. A budget for the exposition was passed and, on 1 May, Lockroy announced an alteration to the terms of the open competition being held for a centrepiece to the exposition, which effectively made the selection of Eiffel’s design a foregone conclusion, as entries had to include a study for a 300 m (980 ft) four-sided metal tower on the Champ de Mars.[10] (A 300-metre tower was then considered a herculean engineering effort.) On 12 May, a commission was set up to examine Eiffel’s scheme and its rivals, which, a month later, decided that all the proposals except Eiffel’s were either impractical or lacking in details. After some debate about the exact location of the tower, a contract was signed on 8 January 1887. Eiffel signed it acting in his own capacity rather than as the representative of his company, the contract granting him 1.5 million francs toward the construction costs: less than a quarter of the estimated 6.5 million francs. Eiffel was to receive all income from the commercial exploitation of the tower during the exhibition and for the next 20 years. He later established a separate company to manage the tower, putting up half the necessary capital himself.[11] A French bank, the Crédit Industriel et Commercial (CIC), helped finance the construction of the Eiffel Tower. During the period of the tower’s construction, the CIC was acquiring funds from predatory loans to the National Bank of Haiti, some of which went towards the financing of the tower. These loans were connected to an indemnity controversy which saw France force Haiti’s government to financially compensate French slaveowners for lost income as a result of the Haitian Revolution, and required Haiti to pay the CIC and its partner nearly half of all taxes collected on exports, “effectively choking off the nation’s primary source of income”. According to The New York Times, “[at] a time when the [CIC] was helping finance one of the world’s best-known landmarks, the Eiffel Tower, as a monument to French liberty, it was choking Haiti’s economy, taking much of the young nation’s income back to Paris and impairing its ability to start schools, hospitals and the other building blocks of an independent country.”[12] Artists’ protest Caricature of Gustave Eiffel comparing the Eiffel tower to the Pyramids, published in Le Temps, 14 February 1887 The proposed tower had been a subject of controversy, drawing criticism from those who did not believe it was feasible and those who objected on artistic grounds. Prior to the Eiffel Tower’s construction, no structure had ever been constructed to a height of 300 m, or even 200 m for that matter,[13] and many people believed it was impossible. These objections were an expression of a long-standing debate in France about the relationship between architecture and engineering. It came to a head as work began at the Champ de Mars: a “Committee of Three Hundred” (one member for each metre of the tower’s height) was formed, led by the prominent architect Charles Garnier and including some of the most important figures of the arts, such as William-Adolphe Bouguereau, Guy de Maupassant, Charles Gounod and Jules Massenet. A petition called “Artists against the Eiffel Tower” was sent to the Minister of Works and Commissioner for the Exposition, Adolphe Alphand, and it was published by Le Temps on 14 February 1887: We, writers, painters, sculptors, architects and passionate devotees of the hitherto untouched beauty of Paris, protest with all our strength, with all our indignation in the name of slighted French taste, against the erection … of this useless and monstrous Eiffel Tower … To bring our arguments home, imagine for a moment a giddy, ridiculous tower dominating Paris like a gigantic black smokestack, crushing under its barbaric bulk Notre Dame, the Tour Saint-Jacques, the Louvre, the Dome of les Invalides, the Arc de Triomphe, all of our humiliated monuments will disappear in this ghastly dream. And for twenty years … we shall see stretching like a blot of ink the hateful shadow of the hateful column of bolted sheet metal.[14] A calligram by Guillaume Apollinaire Gustave Eiffel responded to these criticisms by comparing his tower to the Egyptian pyramids: “My tower will be the tallest edifice ever erected by man. Will it not also be grandiose in its way? And why would something admirable in Egypt become hideous and ridiculous in Paris?”[15] These criticisms were also dealt with by Édouard Lockroy in a letter of support written to Alphand, sardonically saying,[16] “Judging by the stately swell of the rhythms, the beauty of the metaphors, the elegance of its delicate and precise style, one can tell this protest is the result of collaboration of the most famous writers and poets of our time”, and he explained that the protest was irrelevant since the project had been decided upon months before, and construction on the tower was already under way. Indeed, Garnier was a member of the Tower Commission that had examined the various proposals, and had raised no objection. Eiffel was similarly unworried, pointing out to a journalist that it was premature to judge the effect of the tower solely on the basis of the drawings, that the Champ de Mars was distant enough from the monuments mentioned in the protest for there to be little risk of the tower overwhelming them, and putting the aesthetic argument for the tower: “Do not the laws of natural forces always conform to the secret laws of harmony?”[17] Some of the protesters changed their minds when the tower was built; others remained unconvinced.[18] Guy de Maupassant supposedly ate lunch in the tower’s restaurant every day because it was the one place in Paris where the tower was not visible.[19] By 1918, it had become a symbol of Paris and of France after Guillaume Apollinaire wrote a nationalist poem in the shape of the tower (a calligram) to express his feelings about the war against Germany.[20] Today, it is widely considered to be a remarkable piece of structural art, and is often featured in films and literature. Construction Foundations of the Eiffel Tower, photographed in 1887 Work on the foundations started on 28 January 1887.[21] Those for the east and south legs were straightforward, with each leg resting on four 2 m (6.6 ft) concrete slabs, one for each of the principal girders of each leg. The west and north legs, being closer to the river Seine, were more complicated: each slab needed two piles installed by using compressed-air caissons 15 m (49 ft) long and 6 m (20 ft) in diameter driven to a depth of 22 m (72 ft)[22] to support the concrete slabs, which were 6 m (20 ft) thick. Each of these slabs supported a block of limestone with an inclined top to bear a supporting shoe for the ironwork. Each shoe was anchored to the stonework by a pair of bolts 10 cm (4 in) in diameter and 7.5 m (25 ft) long. The foundations were completed on 30 June, and the erection of the ironwork began. The visible work on-site was complemented by the enormous amount of exacting preparatory work that took place behind the scenes: the drawing office produced 1,700 general drawings and 3,629 detailed drawings of the 18,038 different parts needed.[23] The task of drawing the components was complicated by the complex angles involved in the design and the degree of precision required: the position of rivet holes was specified to within 1 mm (0.04 in) and angles worked out to one second of arc.[24] The finished components, some already riveted together into sub-assemblies, arrived on horse-drawn carts from a factory in the nearby Parisian suburb of Levallois-Perret and were first bolted together, with the bolts being replaced with rivets as construction progressed. No drilling or shaping was done on site: if any part did not fit, it was sent back to the factory for alteration. In all, 18,038 pieces were joined using 2.5 million rivets.[21] At first, the legs were constructed as cantilevers, but about halfway to the first level construction was paused to create a substantial timber scaffold. This renewed concerns about the structural integrity of the tower, and sensational headlines such as “Eiffel Suicide!” and “Gustave Eiffel Has Gone Mad: He Has Been Confined in an Asylum” appeared in the tabloid press.[25] Multiple famous artists of that time, Charles Garnier and Alexander Dumas, thought poorly of the newly made tower. Charles Garnier thought it was a “truly tragic street lamp”. Alexander Dumas said that it was like “Odius shadow of the odious column built of rivets and iron plates extending like a black blot”. There were multiple protests over the style and the reasoning of placing it in the middle of Paris.[26] At this stage, a small “creeper” crane designed to move up the tower was installed in each leg. They made use of the guides for the lifts which were to be fitted in the four legs. The critical stage of joining the legs at the first level was completed by the end of March 1888.[21] Although the metalwork had been prepared with the utmost attention to detail, provision had been made to carry out small adjustments to precisely align the legs; hydraulic jacks were fitted to the shoes at the base of each leg, capable of exerting a force of 800 tonnes, and the legs were intentionally constructed at a slightly steeper angle than necessary, being supported by sandboxes on the scaffold. Although construction involved 300 on-site employees,[21] due to Eiffel’s safety precautions and the use of movable gangways, guardrails and screens, only one person died.[27] 18 July 1887:The start of the erection of the metalwork 7 December 1887:Construction of the legs with scaffolding 20 March 1888:Completion of the first level 15 May 1888:Start of construction on the second stage 21 August 1888:Completion of the second level 26 December 1888:Construction of the upper stage 15 March 1889:Construction of the cupola Inauguration and the 1889 exposition View of the 1889 World’s Fair The main structural work was completed at the end of March 1889 and, on 31 March, Eiffel celebrated by leading a group of government officials, accompanied by representatives of the press, to the top of the tower.[18] Because the lifts were not yet in operation, the ascent was made by foot, and took over an hour, with Eiffel stopping frequently to explain various features. Most of the party chose to stop at the lower levels, but a few, including the structural engineer, Émile Nouguier, the head of construction, Jean Compagnon, the President of the City Council, and reporters from Le Figaro and Le Monde Illustré, completed the ascent. At 2:35 pm, Eiffel hoisted a large Tricolour to the accompaniment of a 25-gun salute fired at the first level.[28] There was still work to be done, particularly on the lifts and facilities, and the tower was not opened to the public until nine days after the opening of the exposition on 6 May; even then, the lifts had not been completed. The tower was an instant success with the public, and nearly 30,000 visitors made the 1,710-step climb to the top before the lifts entered service on 26 May.[29] Tickets cost 2 francs for the first level, 3 for the second, and 5 for the top, with half-price admission on Sundays,[30] and by the end of the exhibition there had been 1,896,987 visitors.[4] After dark, the tower was lit by hundreds of gas lamps, and a beacon sent out three beams of red, white and blue light. Two searchlights mounted on a circular rail were used to illuminate various buildings of the exposition. The daily opening and closing of the exposition were announced by a cannon at the top.[citation needed] Illumination of the tower at night during the exposition; painted by Georges Garen [fr], 1889 On the second level, the French newspaper Le Figaro had an office and a printing press, where a special souvenir edition, Le Figaro de la Tour, was made. There was also a pâtisserie.[citation needed] At the top, there was a post office where visitors could send letters and postcards as a memento of their visit. Graffitists were also catered for: sheets of paper were mounted on the walls each day for visitors to record their impressions of the tower. Gustave Eiffel described the collection of responses as “truly curious”.[31] Famous visitors to the tower included the Prince of Wales, Sarah Bernhardt, “Buffalo Bill” Cody (his Wild West show was an attraction at the exposition) and Thomas Edison.[29] Eiffel invited Edison to his private apartment at the top of the tower, where Edison presented him with one of his phonographs, a new invention and one of the many highlights of the exposition.[32] Edison signed the guestbook with this message: To M Eiffel the Engineer the brave builder of so gigantic and original specimen of modern Engineering from one who has the greatest respect and admiration for all Engineers including the Great Engineer the Bon Dieu, Thomas Edison. Eiffel made use of his apartment at the top of the tower to carry out meteorological observations, and also used the tower to perform experiments on the action of air resistance on falling bodies.[33] Subsequent events Panoramic view during ascent of the Eiffel Tower by the Lumière brothers, 1898 Eiffel had a permit for the tower to stand for 20 years. It was to be dismantled in 1909, when its ownership would revert to the City of Paris. The city had planned to tear it down (part of the original contest rules for designing a tower was that it should be easy to dismantle) but as the tower proved to be valuable for many innovations in the early 20th century, particularly radio telegraphy, it was allowed to remain after the expiry of the permit, and from 1910 it also became part of the International Time Service.[34] For the 1900 Exposition Universelle, the lifts in the east and west legs were replaced by lifts running as far as the second level constructed by the French firm Fives-Lille. These had a compensating mechanism to keep the floor level as the angle of ascent changed at the first level, and were driven by a similar hydraulic mechanism as the Otis lifts, although this was situated at the base of the tower. Hydraulic pressure was provided by pressurised accumulators located near this mechanism.[35] At the same time the lift in the north pillar was removed and replaced by a staircase to the first level. The layout of both first and second levels was modified, with the space available for visitors on the second level. The original lift in the south pillar was removed 13 years later.[citation needed] Santos-Dumont No. 5; 13 July 1901 On 19 October 1901, Alberto Santos-Dumont, flying his No.6 airship, won a 100,000-franc prize offered by Henri Deutsch de la Meurthe for the first person to make a flight from St. Cloud to the Eiffel Tower and back in less than half an hour.[36] In 1910, Father Theodor Wulf measured radiant energy at the top and bottom of the tower. He found more at the top than expected, incidentally discovering what are known today as cosmic rays.[37] Two years later, on 4 February 1912, Austrian tailor Franz Reichelt died after jumping from the first level of the tower (a height of 57 m) to demonstrate his parachute design.[38] In 1914, at the outbreak of World War I, a radio transmitter located in the tower jammed German radio communications, seriously hindering their advance on Paris and contributing to the Allied victory at the First Battle of the Marne.[39] From 1925 to 1934, illuminated signs for Citroën adorned three of the tower’s sides, making it the tallest advertising space in the world at the time.[40] In April 1935, the tower was used to make experimental low-resolution television transmissions, using a shortwave transmitter of 200 watts power. On 17 November, an improved 180-line transmitter was installed.[41] The Eiffel Tower has been a subject of art, as in this cubist painting by Robert Delaunay (1911) On two separate but related occasions in 1925, the con artist Victor Lustig “sold” the tower for scrap metal.[42] A year later, in February 1926, pilot Leon Collet was killed trying to fly under the tower. His aircraft became entangled in an aerial belonging to a wireless station.[43] A bust of Gustave Eiffel by Antoine Bourdelle was unveiled at the base of the north leg on 2 May 1929.[44] In 1930, the tower lost the title of the world’s tallest structure when the Chrysler Building in New York City was completed.[45] In 1938, the decorative arcade around the first level was removed.[46] Upon the German occupation of Paris in 1940, the lift cables were cut by the French. The tower was closed to the public during the occupation and the lifts were not repaired until 1946.[47] In 1940, German soldiers had to climb the tower to hoist a swastika-centered Reichskriegsflagge,[48] but the flag was so large it blew away just a few hours later, and was replaced by a smaller one.[49] When visiting Paris, Hitler chose to stay on the ground. When the Allies were nearing Paris in August 1944, Hitler ordered General Dietrich von Choltitz, the military governor of Paris, to demolish the tower along with the rest of the city. Von Choltitz disobeyed the order.[50] On 25 August, before the Germans had been driven out of Paris, the German flag was replaced with a Tricolour by two men from the French Naval Museum, who narrowly beat three men led by Lucien Sarniguet, who had lowered the Tricolour on 13 June 1940 when Paris fell to the Germans.[47] A fire started in the television transmitter on 3 January 1956, damaging the top of the tower. Repairs took a year, and in 1957, the present radio aerial was added to the top.[51] In 1964, the Eiffel Tower was officially declared to be a historical monument by the Minister of Cultural Affairs, André Malraux.[52] A year later, an additional lift system was installed in the north pillar.[53] According to interviews, in 1967, Montreal Mayor Jean Drapeau negotiated a secret agreement with Charles de Gaulle for the tower to be dismantled and temporarily relocated to Montreal to serve as a landmark and tourist attraction during Expo 67. The plan was allegedly vetoed by the company operating the tower out of fear that the French government could refuse permission for the tower to be restored in its original location.[54] In 1982, the original lifts between the second and third levels were replaced after 97 years in service. These had been closed to the public between November and March because the water in the hydraulic drive tended to freeze. The new cars operate in pairs, with one counterbalancing the other, and perform the journey in one stage, reducing the journey time from eight minutes to less than two minutes. At the same time, two new emergency staircases were installed, replacing the original spiral staircases. In 1983, the south pillar was fitted with an electrically driven Otis lift to serve the Jules Verne restaurant.[citation needed] The Fives-Lille lifts in the east and west legs, fitted in 1899, were extensively refurbished in 1986. The cars were replaced, and a computer system was installed to completely automate the lifts. The motive power was moved from the water hydraulic system to a new electrically driven oil-filled hydraulic system, and the original water hydraulics were retained solely as a counterbalance system.[53] A service lift was added to the south pillar for moving small loads and maintenance personnel three years later.[citation needed] Robert Moriarty flew a Beechcraft Bonanza under the tower on 31 March 1984.[55] In 1987, A. J. Hackett made one of his first bungee jumps from the top of the Eiffel Tower, using a special cord he had helped develop. Hackett was arrested by the police.[56] On 27 October 1991, Thierry Devaux, along with mountain guide Hervé Calvayrac, performed a series of acrobatic figures while bungee jumping from the second floor of the tower. Facing the Champ de Mars, Devaux used an electric winch between figures to go back up to the second floor. When firemen arrived, he stopped after the sixth jump.[57] The tower is the focal point for New Year’s Eve and Bastille Day (as in this image from 2013) celebrations. For its “Countdown to the Year 2000” celebration on 31 December 1999, flashing lights and high-powered searchlights were installed on the tower. During the last three minutes of the year, the lights were turned on starting from the base of the tower and continuing to the top to welcome 2000 with a huge fireworks show. An exhibition above a cafeteria on the first floor commemorates this event. The searchlights on top of the tower made it a beacon in Paris’s night sky, and 20,000 flashing bulbs gave the tower a sparkly appearance for five minutes every hour on the hour.[58] The lights sparkled blue for several nights to herald the new millennium on 31 December 2000. The sparkly lighting continued for 18 months until July 2001. The sparkling lights were turned on again on 21 June 2003, and the display was planned to last for 10 years before they needed replacing.[59] The tower received its 200,000,000th guest on 28 November 2002.[60] The tower has operated at its maximum capacity of about 7 million visitors per year since 2003.[61] In 2004, the Eiffel Tower began hosting a seasonal ice rink on the first level.[62] A glass floor was installed on the first level during the 2014 refurbishment.[63] Design Material The Eiffel Tower from below The puddle iron (wrought iron) of the Eiffel Tower weighs 7,300 tonnes,[64] and the addition of lifts, shops and antennae have brought the total weight to approximately 10,100 tonnes.[65] As a demonstration of the economy of design, if the 7,300 tonnes of metal in the structure were melted down, it would fill the square base, 125 metres (410 ft) on each side, to a depth of only 6.25 cm (2.46 in) assuming the density of the metal to be 7.8 tonnes per cubic metre.[66] Additionally, a cubic box surrounding the tower (324 m × 125 m × 125 m) would contain 6,200 tonnes of air, weighing almost as much as the iron itself. Depending on the ambient temperature, the top of the tower may shift away from the sun by up to 18 cm (7 in) due to thermal expansion of the metal on the side facing the sun.[67] Wind and weather considerations Lightning striking the tower in 1902 When it was built, many were shocked by the tower’s daring form. Eiffel was accused of trying to create something artistic with no regard to the principles of engineering. However, Eiffel and his team – experienced bridge builders – understood the importance of wind forces, and knew that if they were going to build the tallest structure in the world, they had to be sure it could withstand them. In an interview with the newspaper Le Temps published on 14 February 1887, Eiffel said: Is it not true that the very conditions which give strength also conform to the hidden rules of harmony? … Now to what phenomenon did I have to give primary concern in designing the Tower? It was wind resistance. Well then! I hold that the curvature of the monument’s four outer edges, which is as mathematical calculation dictated it should be … will give a great impression of strength and beauty, for it will reveal to the eyes of the observer the boldness of the design as a whole.[68] He used graphical methods to determine the strength of the tower and empirical evidence to account for the effects of wind, rather than a mathematical formula. Close examination of the tower reveals a basically exponential shape.[69] All parts of the tower were overdesigned to ensure maximum resistance to wind forces. The top half was even assumed to have no gaps in the latticework.[70] In the years since it was completed, engineers have put forward various mathematical hypotheses in an attempt to explain the success of the design. The most recent, devised in 2004 after letters sent by Eiffel to the French Society of Civil Engineers in 1885 were translated into English, is described as a non-linear integral equation based on counteracting the wind pressure on any point of the tower with the tension between the construction elements at that point.[69] The Eiffel Tower sways by up to 9 cm (3.5 in) in the wind.[71] Floors Ground floor Base of the Eiffel Tower The four columns of the tower each house access stairs and elevators to the first two floors, while at the south column only the elevator to the second floor restaurant is publicly accessible. 1st floor Original restaurants at the 1st floor, as viewed from inside the tower The first floor is publicly accessible by elevator or stairs. When originally built, the first level contained three restaurants – one French, one Russian and one Flemish — and an “Anglo-American Bar”. After the exposition closed, the Flemish restaurant was converted to a 250-seat theatre. Today there is the Le 58 Tour Eiffel restaurant and other facilities. A promenade 2.6-metre (8 ft 6 in) wide ran around the outside of the first level 2nd floor The second floor is publicly accessible by elevator or stairs and has a restaurant called Le Jules Verne, a gourmet restaurant with its own lift going up from the south column to the second level. This restaurant has one star in the Michelin Red Guide. It was run by the multi-Michelin star chef Alain Ducasse from 2007 to 2017.[72] As of May 2019, it is managed by three-star chef Frédéric Anton.[73] It owes its name to the famous science-fiction writer Jules Verne. 3rd floor The third floor is the top floor, publicly accessible by elevator. Originally there were laboratories for various experiments, and a small apartment reserved for Gustave Eiffel to entertain guests, which is now open to the public, complete with period decorations and lifelike mannequins of Eiffel and some of his notable guests.[74] Gustave Eiffel’s apartment at the third floor From 1937 until 1981, there was a restaurant near the top of the tower. It was removed due to structural considerations; engineers had determined it was too heavy and was causing the tower to sag.[75] This restaurant was sold to an American restaurateur and transported to New York and then New Orleans. It was rebuilt on the edge of New Orleans’ Garden District as a restaurant and later event hall.[76] Today there is a champagne bar. Lifts The arrangement of the lifts has been changed several times during the tower’s history. Given the elasticity of the cables and the time taken to align the cars with the landings, each lift, in normal service, takes an average of 8 minutes and 50 seconds to do the round trip, spending an average of 1 minute and 15 seconds at each level. The average journey time between levels is 1 minute. The original hydraulic mechanism is on public display in a small museum at the base of the east and west legs. Because the mechanism requires frequent lubrication and maintenance, public access is often restricted. The rope mechanism of the north tower can be seen as visitors exit the lift.[77] The Roux, Combaluzier & Lepape lifts during construction. Equipping the tower with adequate and safe passenger lifts was a major concern of the government commission overseeing the Exposition. Although some visitors could be expected to climb to the first level, or even the second, lifts clearly had to be the main means of ascent.[78] Constructing lifts to reach the first level was relatively straightforward: the legs were wide enough at the bottom and so nearly straight that they could contain a straight track, and a contract was given to the French company Roux, Combaluzier & Lepape for two lifts to be fitted in the east and west legs.[79] Roux, Combaluzier & Lepape used a pair of endless chains with rigid, articulated links to which the car was attached. Lead weights on some links of the upper or return sections of the chains counterbalanced most of the car’s weight. The car was pushed up from below, not pulled up from above: to prevent the chain buckling, it was enclosed in a conduit. At the bottom of the run, the chains passed around 3.9 m (12 ft 10 in) diameter sprockets. Smaller sprockets at the top guided the chains.[79] The Otis lifts originally fitted in the north and south legs Installing lifts to the second level was more of a challenge because a straight track was impossible. No French company wanted to undertake the work. The European branch of Otis Brothers & Company submitted a proposal but this was rejected: the fair’s charter ruled out the use of any foreign material in the construction of the tower. The deadline for bids was extended but still no French companies put themselves forward, and eventually the contract was given to Otis in July 1887.[35] Otis were confident they would eventually be given the contract and had already started creating designs.[citation needed] The car was divided into two superimposed compartments, each holding 25 passengers, with the lift operator occupying an exterior platform on the first level. Motive power was provided by an inclined hydraulic ram 12.67 m (41 ft 7 in) long and 96.5 cm (38.0 in) in diameter in the tower leg with a stroke of 10.83 m (35 ft 6 in): this moved a carriage carrying six sheaves. Five fixed sheaves were mounted higher up the leg, producing an arrangement similar to a block and tackle but acting in reverse, multiplying the stroke of the piston rather than the force generated. The hydraulic pressure in the driving cylinder was produced by a large open reservoir on the second level. After being exhausted from the cylinder, the water was pumped back up to the reservoir by two pumps in the machinery room at the base of the south leg. This reservoir also provided power to the lifts to the first level.[citation needed] The original lifts for the journey between the second and third levels were supplied by Léon Edoux. A pair of 81 m (266 ft) hydraulic rams were mounted on the second level, reaching nearly halfway up to the third level. One lift car was mounted on top of these rams: cables ran from the top of this car up to sheaves on the third level and back down to a second car. Each car travelled only half the distance between the second and third levels and passengers were required to change lifts halfway by means of a short gangway. The 10-ton cars each held 65 passengers.[80] Engraved names Main article: List of the 72 names on the Eiffel Tower Names engraved on the tower Gustave Eiffel engraved on the tower the names of 72 French scientists, engineers and mathematicians in recognition of their contributions to the building of the tower. Eiffel chose this “invocation of science” because of his concern over the artists’ protest. At the beginning of the 20th century, the engravings were painted over, but they were restored in 1986–87 by the Société Nouvelle d’exploitation de la Tour Eiffel, a company operating the tower.[81] Aesthetics Some original architectural details The tower is painted in three shades: lighter at the top, getting progressively darker towards the bottom to complement the Parisian sky.[82] It was originally reddish brown; this changed in 1968 to a bronze colour known as “Eiffel Tower Brown”.[83] In what is expected to be a temporary change, the tower is being painted gold in commemoration of the upcoming 2024 Summer Olympics in Paris.[84][85] The only non-structural elements are the four decorative grill-work arches, added in Sauvestre’s sketches, which served to make the tower look more substantial and to make a more impressive entrance to the exposition.[86] A pop-culture movie cliché is that the view from a Parisian window always includes the tower.[87] In reality, since zoning restrictions limit the height of most buildings in Paris to seven storeys, only a small number of tall buildings have a clear view of the tower.[88] Eiffel Tower Drone Maintenance Maintenance of the tower includes applying 60 tons of paint every seven years to prevent it from rusting. The tower has been completely repainted at least 19 times since it was built. Lead paint was still being used as recently as 2001 when the practice was stopped out of concern for the environment.[59][89] Communications Top of the Eiffel Tower with antennas The tower has been used for making radio transmissions since the beginning of the 20th century. Until the 1950s, sets of aerial wires ran from the cupola to anchors on the Avenue de Suffren and Champ de Mars. These were connected to longwave transmitters in small bunkers. In 1909, a permanent underground radio centre was built near the south pillar, which still exists today. On 20 November 1913, the Paris Observatory, using the Eiffel Tower as an aerial, exchanged wireless signals with the United States Naval Observatory, which used an aerial in Arlington County, Virginia. The object of the transmissions was to measure the difference in longitude between Paris and Washington, D.C.[90] Today, radio and digital television signals are transmitted from the Eiffel Tower. FM radio Frequency kW Service 87.8 MHz 10 France Inter 89.0 MHz 10 RFI Paris 89.9 MHz 6 TSF Jazz 90.4 MHz 10 Nostalgie 90.9 MHz 4 Chante France Digital television A television antenna was first installed on the tower in 1957, increasing its height by 18.7 m (61 ft). Work carried out in 2000 added a further 5.3 m (17 ft), giving the current height of 324 m (1,063 ft).[59] Analogue television signals from the Eiffel Tower ceased on 8 March 2011. Frequency VHF UHF kW Service 182.25 MHz 6 — 100 Canal+ 479.25 MHz — 22 500 France 2 503.25 MHz — 25 500 TF1 527.25 MHz — 28 500 France 3 543.25 MHz — 30 100 France 5 567.25 MHz — 33 100 M6 Dimensions Current dimensions of the tower Height changes The pinnacle height of the Eiffel Tower has changed multiple times over the years as described in the chart below.[91] From To Height m Height ft Type of addition Remarks 1889 1957 312.27 1,025 Flagpole Architectural height of 300 m (980 ft) Tallest freestanding structure in the world until surpassed by the Chrysler Building in 1930. Tallest tower in the world until surpassed by the KCTV Broadcast Tower in 1956. 1957 1991 320.75 1,052 Antenna Broadcast antenna added in 1957 which made it the tallest tower in the world until the Tokyo Tower was completed the following year in 1958. 1991 1994 317.96 1,043 Antenna change 1994 2000 318.7 1,046 Antenna change 2000 2022 324 1,063 Antenna change 2022 Current 330 1,083 Antenna change Digital radio antenna hoisted on March 15, 2022.[92] Panorama of Paris and its suburbs from the top of the Eiffel Tower Taller structures The Eiffel Tower was the world’s tallest structure when completed in 1889, a distinction it retained until 1929 when the Chrysler Building in New York City was topped out.[93] The tower also lost its standing as the world’s tallest tower to the Tokyo Tower in 1958 but retains its status as the tallest freestanding (non-guyed) structure in France. Lattice towers taller than the Eiffel Tower Further information: List of tallest towers in the world, Lattice tower, and Observation deck Name Pinnacle height Year Country Town Remarks Tokyo Skytree 634 m (2,080 ft) 2011 Japan Tokyo Kyiv TV Tower 385 m (1,263 ft) 1973 Ukraine Kyiv Dragon Tower 336 m (1,102 ft) 2000 China Harbin Tokyo Tower 333 m (1,093 ft) 1958 Japan Tokyo WITI TV Tower 329.4 m (1,081 ft) 1962 United States Shorewood, Wisconsin St. Petersburg TV Tower 326 m (1,070 ft) 1962 Russia Saint Petersburg Structures in France taller than the Eiffel Tower Further information: List of tallest structures in France Name Pinnacle height Year Structure type Town Remarks Longwave transmitter Allouis 350 m (1,150 ft) 1974 Guyed mast Allouis HWU transmitter 350 m (1,150 ft) 1971 Guyed mast Rosnay Military VLF transmitter; multiple masts Viaduc de Millau 343 m (1,125 ft) 2004 Bridge pillar Millau TV Mast Niort-Maisonnay 330 m (1,080 ft) 1978 Guyed mast Niort Transmitter Le Mans-Mayet 342 m (1,122 ft) 1993 Guyed mast Mayet La Regine transmitter 330 m (1,080 ft) 1973 Guyed mast Saissac Military VLF transmitter Transmitter Roumoules 330 m (1,080 ft) 1974 Guyed mast Roumoules Spare transmission mast for longwave; insulated against ground Tourism Transport The nearest Paris Métro station is Bir-Hakeim and the nearest RER station is Champ de Mars-Tour Eiffel.[94] The tower itself is located at the intersection of the quai Branly and the Pont d’Iéna. Eiffel Tower seen from Branly Museum Garden Popularity Number of visitors per year between 1889 and 2004 More than 300 million people have visited the tower since it was completed in 1889.[95][4] In 2015, there were 6.91 million visitors.[96] The tower is the most-visited paid monument in the world.[6] An average of 25,000 people ascend the tower every day (which can result in long queues).[97] Illumination copyright Further information: Freedom of panorama § France The Eiffel Tower illuminated in 2015 The tower and its image have been in the public domain since 1993, 70 years after Eiffel’s death.[98] In June 1990 a French court ruled that a special lighting display on the tower in 1989 to mark the tower’s 100th anniversary was an “original visual creation” protected by copyright. The Court of Cassation, France’s judicial court of last resort, upheld the ruling in March 1992.[99] The Société d’Exploitation de la Tour Eiffel (SETE) now considers any illumination of the tower to be a separate work of art that falls under copyright.[100] As a result, the SNTE alleges that it is illegal to publish contemporary photographs of the lit tower at night without permission in France and some other countries for commercial use.[101][102] For this reason, it is often rare to find images or videos of the lit tower at night on stock image sites,[103] and media outlets rarely broadcast images or videos of it.[104] The imposition of copyright has been controversial. The Director of Documentation for what was then called the Société Nouvelle d’exploitation de la Tour Eiffel (SNTE), Stéphane Dieu, commented in 2005: “It is really just a way to manage commercial use of the image, so that it isn’t used in ways [of which] we don’t approve”.[105] SNTE made over €1 million from copyright fees in 2002.[106] However, it could also be used to restrict the publication of tourist photographs of the tower at night, as well as hindering non-profit and semi-commercial publication of images of the illuminated tower.[107] The copyright claim itself has never been tested in courts to date, according to a 2014 article in the Art Law Journal, and there has never been an attempt to track down millions of people who have posted and shared their images of the illuminated tower on the Internet worldwide. It added, however, that permissive situation may arise on commercial use of such images, like in a magazine, on a film poster, or on product packaging.[108] French doctrine and jurisprudence allows pictures incorporating a copyrighted work as long as their presence is incidental or accessory to the subject being represented,[109] a reasoning akin to the de minimis rule. Therefore, SETE may be unable to claim copyright on photographs of Paris which happen to include the lit tower. Replicas Main article: List of Eiffel Tower replicas Replica at the Paris Las Vegas Hotel, Nevada, United States As one of the most famous landmarks in the world, the Eiffel Tower has been the inspiration for the creation of many replicas and similar towers. An early example is Blackpool Tower in England. The mayor of Blackpool, Sir John Bickerstaffe, was so impressed on seeing the Eiffel Tower at the 1889 exposition that he commissioned a similar tower to be built in his town. It opened in 1894 and is 158.1 m (519 ft) tall.[110] Tokyo Tower in Japan, built as a communications tower in 1958, was also inspired by the Eiffel Tower.[111] There are various scale models of the tower in the United States, including a half-scale version at the Paris Las Vegas, Nevada, one in Paris, Texas built in 1993, and two 1:3 scale models at Kings Island, located in Mason, Ohio, and Kings Dominion, Virginia, amusement parks opened in 1972 and 1975 respectively. Two 1:3 scale models can be found in China, one in Durango, Mexico that was donated by the local French community, and several across Europe.[112] In 2011, the TV show Pricing the Priceless on the National Geographic Channel speculated that a full-size replica of the tower would cost approximately US$480 million to build.[113] This would be more than ten times the cost of the original (nearly 8 million in 1890 Francs; ~US$40 million in 2018 dollars). See also France portal List of tallest buildings and structures in the Paris region List of tallest buildings and structures List of tourist attractions in Paris List of tallest towers List of tallest freestanding structures List of tallest freestanding steel structures List of tallest structures built before the 20th century List of transmission sites Lattice tower Eiffel Tower, 1909–1928 painting series by Robert Delaunay References Notes ^ a b “Eiffel Tower”. CTBUH Skyscraper Center. ^ “Intermediate floor of the Eiffel tower”. ^ “Eiffel Tower”. Emporis. Archived from the original on 22 April 2016. ^ a b c SETE. “The Eiffel Tower at a glance”. Official Eiffel Tower website. Archived from the original on 14 April 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016. ^ Tourism Statistics, “Visit Paris Region” site of the Paris Ile de France Visitors Bureau, retrieved March 22, 2022. ^ a b Jean-Michel Normand (23 July 2007). “Tour Eiffel et souvenirs de Paris”. Le Monde. France. 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The Jakarta Post. 9 December 2017. ^ “Cour de cassation 3 mars 1992, Jus Luminum n°J523975” (in French). Jus Luminum. Archived from the original on 16 November 2009. ^ Jimmy Wales (3 July 2015). “If you want to keep sharing photos for free, read this”. The Guardian. Retrieved 15 April 2016. ^ “The Eiffel Tower image rights”. Société d’Exploitation de la Tour Eiffel. 31 March 2021. ^ Hugh Morris (24 June 2015). “Freedom of panorama: EU proposal could mean holiday snaps breach copyright”. The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 15 April 2016. ^ Nicholls, Will (14 October 2017). “Why Photos of the Eiffel Tower at Night are Illegal”. PetaPixel. Retrieved 24 February 2021. ^ Cuttle, Jade (1 July 2019). “Why Photos of the Eiffel Tower at Night are Illegal”. The Culture Trip. Retrieved 24 February 2021. ^ “Eiffel Tower: Repossessed”. Fast Company. 2 February 2005. Retrieved 15 April 2016. ^ James Arnold (16 May 2003). “Are things looking up for the Eiffel Tower?”. BBC News. Retrieved 16 April 2016. ^ Steve Schlackman (16 November 2014). “Do night photos of the Eiffel Tower violate copyright?”. Artrepreneur Art Law Journal. Retrieved 13 July 2020. ^ Larsen, Stephanie (13 March 2017). “Is it Illegal to Take Photographs of the Eiffel Tower at Night?”. Snopes. Retrieved 24 February 2021. ^ Notions Fondamentales Du Droit D’auteur (in French). World Intellectual Property Organization. 2002. p. 277. ISBN 978-92-805-1013-3. La représentation d’une œuvre située dans un lieu public n’est licite que lorsqu’elle est accessoire par rapport au sujet principal représenté ou traité ^ “The Blackpool Tower”. History Extra. Retrieved 6 March 2014. ^ “The red and white Eiffel Tower of Tokyo”. KLM. Retrieved 16 April 2016. ^ Todd van Luling (19 August 2013). “The most legit Eiffel Tower replicas you didn’t know existed”. Huffpost Travel. Retrieved 16 April 2016. ^ “Eiffel Tower”. Pricing the Priceless. Season 1. Episode 3. 9 May 2011. National Geographic Channel (Australia). Bibliography Chanson, Hubert (2009). “Hydraulic engineering legends Listed on the Eiffel Tower”. In Jerry R. Rogers (ed.). Great Rivers History: Proceedings and Invited Papers for the EWRI Congress and Great Rivers History Symposium. American Society of Civil Engineers. ISBN 978-0-7844-1032-5. Frémy, Dominique (1989). Quid de la tour Eiffel. R. Laffont. ISBN 978-2-221-06488-7. The Engineer: The Paris Exhibition. Vol. XLVII. London: Office for Advertisements and Publication. 3 May 1889. Harriss, Joseph (1975). The Eiffel Tower: Symbol of an Age. London: Paul Elek. ISBN 0236400363. Harvie, David I. (2006). Eiffel: The Genius Who Reinvented Himself. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton. ISBN 0-7509-3309-7. Jonnes, Jill (2009). Eiffel’s Tower: The Thrilling Story Behind Paris’s Beloved Monument …. Penguin. ISBN 978-1-101-05251-8. Loyrette, Henri (1985). Eiffel, un Ingenieur et Son Oeuvre. Rizzoli. ISBN 978-0-8478-0631-7. Musée d’Orsay (1989). 1889: la Tour Eiffel et l’Exposition Universelle. Editions de la Réunion des Musées Nationaux, Ministère de la Culture, de la Communication, des Grands Travaux et du Bicentenaire. ISBN 978-2-7118-2244-7. Vogel, Robert M. (1961). “Elevator Systems of the Eiffel Tower, 1889”. United States National Museum Bulletin. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. 228: 20–21. Watson, William (1892). Paris Universal Exposition: Civil Engineering, Public Works, and Architecture. Washington, D.C.: Government Publishing Office. External links Eiffel Tower at Wikipedia’s sister projects Definitions from WiktionaryMedia from CommonsTexts from WikisourceTravel information from WikivoyageData from Wikidata Official website Eiffel Tower at Structurae List of radio services using today Eiffel Tower Records Preceded byWashington Monument World’s tallest structure 1889–1931312 m (1,024 ft) Succeeded byChrysler Building World’s tallest tower 1889–1956 Succeeded byKCTV Broadcast Tower Preceded byKCTV Broadcast Tower World’s tallest tower 1957–1958 Succeeded byTokyo Tower vte7th arrondissement of ParisNeighbourhoods Faubourg Saint-Germain Quartier du Gros-Caillou Primary and secondary schools Lycée et collège Victor Duruy Établissement La Rochefoucauld Institut de l’Alma Lycée-collège Paul-Claudel Lycée d’Hulst Lycée Sainte-Jeanne Elisabeth Lycée Saint-Thomas-d’Aquin Lycée Thérèse-Chappuis Istituto Statale Italiano Leonardo Da Vinci Colleges and universities American University of Paris Sciences Po Landmarks American 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Exposition Site Champ de Mars, Trocadéro and esplanade des Invalides. Paris Pavilions Palace of Machines Palace of Various Industries Fontaine Bartholdi Imperial Diamond Iron House Iron Church Attractions Decauville railway Eiffel Tower Others Esclarmonde vte1900 Paris Exposition Site Champ de Mars, Trocadéro, esplanade des Invalides, banks of the Seine and Bois de Vincennes. Paris Pavilions Grand Palais DK: A Meeting in the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters ES: Sad Inheritance! GB: Spring RS: The Proclamation of Dušan’s Law Codex first version – The Takovo Uprising RU: Out into the World US: Colonel Thomas Cass – The Great God Pan – The Little White Girl – The Medicine Man – Struggle of the Two Natures in Man INT: Melancolie C.FR: A Cotton Office in New Orleans – Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe – Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi – Haymaking in the Auvergne – La Loge – Portrait of Alphonse Leroy – The Seine at Port-Marly, Piles of Sand Palace of Agriculture and Food Palace of Diverse Industries US: The Star of India Palace of Optics The Great Telescope Palace of Social Economy US: The Exhibit of American Negroes Petit Palais Pavilion of Finland The Defense of the Sampo fresco Royal Pavilion of Spain Events 1900 Summer Olympics Paris 1900 chess tournament Attractions Cinéorama Eiffel Tower Globe Céleste Grande Roue Mareorama Passerelle Debilly Pont Alexandre III Rue de l’Avenir Urban development Chemin de fer de Petite Ceinture Gare de Lyon Le Train Bleu Gare d’Orsay Gare du Champ de Mars Gare de Javel Hôtel Régina Métro Line 1 entrances Others Lafayette dollar Paris Exposition, 1900 Verset laïque et somptueux vte1937 Paris International Exposition of Arts and Techniques Applied to Modern Life Site Champ de Mars, Trocadéro, esplanade des Invalides and banks of the Seine. Paris Pavilions Grand Palais Palais de Chaillot Palace of the Museums of Modern Art Pavilion of Spain Guernica Mercury fountain The Reaper Pavilion of the USSR Worker and Kolkhoz Woman Attractions Eiffel Tower Naissance d’une cité Passerelle Debilly Pont Alexandre III Urban development Métro Line 8 Line 10 Line 14 Others Fête des belles eaux Phare du Monde vte Venues of the 2024 Summer Olympics (Paris)Grand Paris Zone Stade de France Saint-Denis Paris Aquatic Centre (Parc des sports de Marville) Porte de La Chapelle Arena Le Bourget Paris La Défense Arena, Nanterre Stade Yves-du-Manoir, Colombes Le Zénith Paris Centre Zone Champ de Mars Eiffel Tower Champs-Élysées Grand Palais Éphémère Les Invalides Tuileries Garden Paris Expo Porte de Versailles Stade Roland Garros Court Philippe Chatrier Court Suzanne Lenglen Court Simonne-Mathieu Parc des Princes Accor Arena Seine Jardins du Trocadéro Versailles Zone Le Golf National Vélodrome National Palace of Versailles Élancourt Hill Stand-alone venues Vaires-sur-Marne Marseille Stade Pierre-Mauroy Teahupo’o Disneyland Paris Marne-la-Vallée Football stadia Stade Vélodrome Parc des Princes Parc Olympique Lyonnais Nouveau Stade de Bordeaux Stade de la Beaujoire Stade Geoffroy-Guichard Allianz Riviera vteOlympic venues in volleyball20th century 1964: Komazawa Volleyball Courts, Yokohama Cultural Gymnasium (final) 1968: Juan de la Barrera Olympic Gymnasium (final), Juan Escutia Sports Palace, Revolution Ice Rink 1972: Volleyballhalle 1976: Montreal Forum (final), Paul Sauvé Centre 1980: Druzhba Multipurpose Arena, Minor Arena of the Central Lenin Stadium (final) 1984: Long Beach Arena 1988: Hanyang University Gymnasium, Jamsil Gymnasium (final), Saemaul Sports Hall 1992: Palau dels Esports de Barcelona, Palau Sant Jordi (final), Pavelló de la Vall d’Hebron 1996: Clayton County International Park (2-man), Omni Coliseum (indoor final), Stegeman Coliseum 21st century 2000: Bondi Beach, Sydney Entertainment Centre (indoor final), Sydney Showground Pavilion 4 2004: Faliro Olympic Beach Volleyball Centre, Peace and Friendship Stadium 2008: Beijing Institute of Technology Gymnasium, Capital Indoor Stadium (indoor final), Chaoyang Park Beach Volleyball Ground 2012: Earls Court Exhibition Centre, Horse Guards Parade 2016: Copacabana Beach, Maracanãzinho 2020: Ariake Arena, Shiokaze Park 2024: Paris Expo Porte de Versailles, Champ de Mars 2028: Honda Center, Santa Monica State Beach 2032: Coomera Indoor Sports Centre, Broadbeach, Queensland, Gold Coast Convention and Exhibition Centre Authority control databases International FAST VIAF WorldCat National Spain France BnF data Germany Israel United States Latvia Japan Czech Republic Geographic MusicBrainz place Mérimée Structurae Other IdRef Retrieved from “https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eiffel_Tower&oldid=1192125831” Categories: Eiffel TowerBuildings and structures in the 7th arrondissement of ParisFormer world’s tallest buildingsHistoric Civil Engineering LandmarksLandmarks in FranceMichelin Guide starred restaurants in FranceObservation towers in FranceRestaurant towersSkyscrapers in ParisTourist attractions in ParisTowers in ParisTowers completed in 1889Venues of the 2024 Summer OlympicsOlympic volleyball venuesLattice towersArchitectural controversies1889 establishments in FranceExposition Universelle (1889)World’s fair architecture in ParisMonuments historiques of ParisHidden categories: Pages using the Phonos extensionCS1: Julian–Gregorian uncertaintyCS1 French-language sources (fr)Articles with short descriptionShort description is different from WikidataWikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pagesWikipedia indefinitely move-protected pagesUse British English from June 2022Use dmy dates from March 2021Articles containing French-language textInfobox mapframe without OSM relation ID on WikidataCoordinates on WikidataPages with French IPAPages including recorded pronunciationsAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from March 2021Articles with unsourced statements from November 2015Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidataPages using Sister project links with default searchArticles with FAST identifiersArticles with VIAF identifiersArticles with WorldCat Entities identifiersArticles with BNE identifiersArticles with BNF identifiersArticles with BNFdata identifiersArticles with GND identifiersArticles with J9U identifiersArticles with LCCN identifiersArticles with LNB identifiersArticles with NDL identifiersArticles with NKC identifiersArticles with MusicBrainz place identifiersArticles with Mérimée identifiersArticles with Structurae structure identifiersArticles with SUDOC identifiersArticles containing video clipsPages using the Kartographer extension This page was last edited on 27 December 2023, at 18:58 (UTC). 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Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Code of Conduct Developers Statistics Cookie statement Mobile view Toggle limited content width The OFFICIAL Eiffel Tower website: tickets, news, info… Skip to main content Tickets Prices & Times Planning a smooth visit Explore Explore The Esplanade 1st Floor 2nd Floor The Top The Gardens The Tower Restaurants & gift shops News Agenda Search EN Fermer le sélecteur de langue Français English Español Italiano Deutsch Português 中文 日本語 عربي Home Pause video Play video Pause Play The Eiffel TowerThere’s no feeling like it… Buy a ticket What to know today Pause carouselPlay carousel Dine on the 1st floor at Madame Brasserie: watch the Paris skyline while you have diner. Without reservation, subject to availability. More information Bir Hakeim station closed from October 30, 2023, through February 4, 2024 inclusive. More information Do not miss the free exhibition on the esplanade: “Eiffel Toujours plus haut”, the incredible story of Gustave Eiffel’s fight to impose his masterpiece! Dine on the 1st floor at Madame Brasserie: watch the Paris skyline while you have diner. Without reservation, subject to availability. More information Bir Hakeim station closed from October 30, 2023, through February 4, 2024 inclusive. More information Do not miss the free exhibition on the esplanade: “Eiffel Toujours plus haut”, the incredible story of Gustave Eiffel’s fight to impose his masterpiece! Dine on the 1st floor at Madame Brasserie: watch the Paris skyline while you have diner. Without reservation, subject to availability. More information Go to slide 1Go to slide 2Go to slide 3 Waiting times Closed Opening times 09:30 – 00:00 Access map Coming to the Tower A journey to the top Come and discover the Eiffel Tower on the only trip to the top of its kind in Europe, and let pure emotions carry you from the esplanade to the top. Discover the Eiffel Tower Now at the Tower Free mobile visitor’s guide Enhance your experience at the Tower with your mobile phone. No download required! Connect to the webapp Eiffel Tower exclusive collection Bring home the official snow ball, miniature Eiffel Towers and more exclusive souvenirs! Only at the Tower shops! Dine on the 1st floor of the Eiffel Tower Enjoy the spectacle of Paris illuminated over a refined dinner at Madame Brasserie! Book your table News Shopping: our Christmas gift ideas Why not make the most of your trip to the Eiffel Tower to pick up some original gifts to slip under the tree? A holiday market on the first floor! The magic of Christmas has come to the first floor of the Eiffel Tower. The Monumental Tour at the Eiffel Tower To commemorate the 100th anniversary of Gustave Eiffel’s death, the Eiffel Tower and French DJ & producer Michael Canitrot are presenting an exceptional show, broadcast on social media and television. Shopping: our Christmas gift ideas Why not make the most of your trip to the Eiffel Tower to pick up some original gifts to slip under the tree? A holiday market on the first floor! The magic of Christmas has come to the first floor of the Eiffel Tower. The Monumental Tour at the Eiffel Tower To commemorate the 100th anniversary of Gustave Eiffel’s death, the Eiffel Tower and French DJ & producer Michael Canitrot are presenting an exceptional show, broadcast on social media and television. Shopping: our Christmas gift ideas Why not make the most of your trip to the Eiffel Tower to pick up some original gifts to slip under the tree? Go to slide 1Go to slide 2Go to slide 3 See all the news Don’t miss The Tower History, key figures, lights, paintings, explore all the secrets of the world’s most iconic monument Restaurants & stores On every floor, the Eiffel Tower has a range of dining and gift-shop options. The Gustave Eiffel Salon For your business events, hire a new venue in a magical setting. Fully equipped to meet all of your needs. If you are : A family Professional in the Tourism Industry A business Teachers Visitors with disabilities A journalist The Eiffel Tower on social media See more photos Follow us on social networks : Facebook X Instagram Competitions Exclusive photos All the news on the Eiffel Tower check Weather tarif time heart instagram Prices& Times Accessmap Haut de page Book a ticket Save time, buy your tickets online Buy a ticket Home TOUREIFFEL.PARIS THE OFFICIAL WEBSITE OF THE EIFFEL TOWER A website owned by Sociéte d’Exploitation de la tour Eiffel Access map Contact FAQ Jobs Press Companies Schools Professionals in the Tourism Industry SETE Mairie de Paris Legal information Data protection policy Cookies Credits Follow us on Youtube Facebook Twitter Linkedin Instagram Home Prices & Times Planning a smooth visit Explore Explore The Esplanade 1st Floor 2nd Floor The Top The Gardens The Tower Restaurants & gift shops News Agenda Just a moment…parisjetaime.comChecking if the site connection is secureparisjetaime.com needs to review the security of your connection before proceeding.Connection is secureProceeding…Enable JavaScript and cookies to continueRay ID: 83d696c02f89b097Performance & security by Cloudflare 15 Best Eiffel Tower Tours – The Crazy Tourist Skip to content Menu Menu Home About Privacy Policy Contact Menu Home About Privacy Policy Contact Home » Travel Guides » France » 15 Best Eiffel Tower Tours15 Best Eiffel Tower Tours Written by Jan Meeuwesen Updated on January 26, 2020 Our travel recommendations are based on our personal experiences and research, written by locals and travel experts with deep familiarity with the destination. When you book a hotel or tour that we link to, we may earn a commission. Built of wrought iron and towering like a sentinel over the chic city of Paris, the Eiffel Tower is one of the continent’s most recognizable and visited icons. Constructed over 3 years in the 1880s, it was originally built to wow and welcome attendees at the 1889 World’s Fair. According to some statistics, it’s the most visited site in the world. It draws nearly 7 million visitors per year and features unobstructed views of the city, and held the title of tallest building in the world for more than 40 years. Below are 15 of the best Eiffel Tower tours that you won’t want to miss. 1. Night Bike Tour with Skip-the-Line Ticket to Eiffel Tower PinSource: beboy / shutterstockEiffel Tower The Eiffel Tower is a majestic structure, and it’s a wonder to behold no matter when you see it, but there’s something extra special about seeing it lit up at night against a dark sky. Before making your way to the tour, you’ll set out on a guided bike tour along the Seine River and visit a few notable Parisian neighborhoods like the Latin Quarter. When it’s time for the tower tour, you’ll be pleased to find that your ticket allows you and your companions to skip the line and head straight into the tower. It’s a great value as the lines are often maddeningly long. View Prices & Reviews 2. 3-Course Lunch at 58 Tour Eiffel Restaurant PinSource: getyourguide.com58 Tour Eiffel Restaurant 58 Tour Eiffel restaurant is a trendy place to enjoy tasty French food while taking in the views around the park. The restaurant is on the first floor so you won’t need to climb hundreds of stairs, and each ticket includes a 3-course lunch with a complimentary drink. Lunches are served in a picnic-style basket, and with such iconic surroundings you may feel like you’ve stepped back in time a few decades, and are shooting a scene for a black and white noir romance movie about two French lovers. After lunch don’t forget to collect your priority lift tickets and head to the observation area. View Prices & Reviews 3. Eiffel Tower Summit Tour by Elevator PinSource: Gimas / shutterstockEiffel Tower Elevator For those weary travelers who are in less than tip-top condition, a guided tour by elevator is the perfect way to see the Eiffel Tower and the amazing city vistas it affords. Guests will meet their guide, and as they’re waiting to ascend he or she will give them an insightful narration into the tower and the amazing architect and builder who conceived it. From the second level, clear views of the Champs-Élysées, Notre Dame and the Louvre Museum will provide amazing photo opportunities that you’ll want to take advantage of. After the tour’s guided portion, visitors can take the elevator to the tower’s summit. View Prices & Reviews 4. Paris and Eiffel Tower Small-Group Segway Sightseeing Tour PinSource: viator.comParis Segway Tour Segway tours have become very popular lately. They’re inexpensive, fun, and enable users to cover a lot of ground quickly without requiring much physical effort. This 2-hour guided Segway tour includes a quick orientation so everyone will be up to speed on how to operate their machine. Then the tour will head off along the Seine River before visiting the Eiffel Tower, Place de la Concorde and the amazing statues that fill the scenic garden at the Rodin Museum. Tour size is limited to 10 so you’ll get more personalized service, and you may see areas on the tour that you’ll choose to visit again later on your own. View Prices & Reviews 5. Eiffel Tower Stair Climb with Optional Summit Access PinSource: viewgene / shutterstockEiffel Tower And Seine River For those fit and energetic travelers who relish the chance to experience a world-renowned site and burn off some extra breakfast calories, this stair climb tour to the tower’s second floor would be a great way to spend a few hours. Though the second floor doesn’t sound very daunting, keep in mind that it takes over 700 steps to get there. Along the way, you’ll learn about the tower’s history and construction and about the man who dreamt up the idea and then built it. The tour lasts about 2 hours, and there’s an option to purchase an upgrade that will allow you to reach the summit as well. View Prices & Reviews 6. City Tour with Eiffel Tower Lunch and Versailles Tour PinSource: S-F / shutterstockVersailles This 8-hour day-tour is a great way to combine a few of the city’s most noteworthy sites into one convenient value-packed tour. The tour includes fast-track Eiffel Tower tickets to ensure guests don’t spend their valuable time waiting in line, and before heading out again, guests will eat a yummy picnic-style lunch at the trendy 58 Tour Eiffel restaurant. The transportation portion of the tour is via a roomy, air-conditioned bus, and in addition to the Eiffel Tower, guests will get a guided tour of the Palace at Versailles and a quick stop at Notre Dame Cathedral as well. View Prices & Reviews 7. Eiffel Tower Dinner and Seine River Cruise PinSource: Samot / shutterstockSeine River and Eiffel Tower in Autumn In Paris, dining out is taken seriously, and it’s often more of an experience than just a way to fill a rumbling stomach. This 3-hour evening tour includes hotel pickup and drop-off, and a tasty 3-course meal with wine at 58 Tour Eiffel restaurant. After dinner and a few photos, guests will depart on the Seine River cruise portion of the tour, which will give them unique views of the city and some of the impressive bridges that span the river. It’s a perfectly relaxing and indulgent way to cap off a day of exploring one of Europe’s most alluring cities. View Prices & Reviews 8. Private Guided Night Tour of Paris by Citroën 2CV PinSource: getyourguide.comPrivate Guided Night Tour Of Paris By Citroën 2CV If you’ve ever wondered what those bizarre but cute little cars often seen in old French movies are, you’re in luck. They’re called the Citroën 2CV, and on this short, 45-minute evening tour you’ll get to ride in one. It’s a perfectly quirky and romantic way to spend an evening and will include views of the Arc de Triomphe, the Eiffel Tower, Orsay Museum and the Louvre. For those without much free time on their itineraries, it’s a great way to see some of the city’s most memorable sites in a short time, and get a historic narration from the driver-guide along the way. View Prices & Reviews 9. Paris Bus Tour, Eiffel Tower Lunch and Seine Cruise PinSource: Richie Chan / shutterstockSeine River in Paris This 2-hour whirlwind tour will whisk eager guests through the city by bus and along the Seine by boat, and includes visits to most of the city’s iconic sites such as Notre Dame Cathedral, the Louvre, Orsay Museum and Madeleine Church. At each site, your guide will give you a brief historical overview of what you’re seeing, and many of the site’s histories go back centuries and are interwoven with the interesting and often tumultuous history of France. The tour is capped off with lunch at 58 Tour Eiffel restaurant, which will give guests some much-needed time to relax, enjoy their lunch and take in the views. View Prices & Reviews 10. Eiffel Tower Wedding Vow Renewal with Photo Shoot PinSource: viator.comParis Eiffel Tower Wedding Vows Renewal Ceremony With Photo Shoot For those happy couples looking for a truly unique activity to enjoy while in Paris, this wedding vow renewal with photo shoot would be a superb choice. The tour and photo shoot are coordinated by a professional photographer who’ll get the most stunning pictures possible, most of which will have the dramatic Eiffel Tower and Champ de Mars gardens in the background. The package includes 25 digitally edited images that you’ll receive on the same day as the tour, plus more that you’ll recieve on the following day. It’s the perfect way to celebrate your visit to the undisputed romance capital of Europe. View Prices & Reviews 11. Full-Day Eiffel Tower and Seine River Cruise with Lunch Tour PinSource: Viacheslav Lopatin / shutterstockNotre Dame Cathedral The Seine River winds its way through Paris and the French countryside, and many of the country’s most notable sites are just a stone’s throw from its banks. This full-day small group tour includes stops at Notre Dame Cathedral, the Louvre, Arch de Triomphe and the Champs-Elysées. Informative and interesting narration from your guide is included along the way, and at just the right time you’ll enjoy a delicious lunch. Another tour highlight is the neighborhood of Montmartre, a bohemian area known as the home of many of the city’s artists and authors, and a chic place to stop for a drink or an afternoon coffee. View Prices & Reviews 12. Dinner, Cruise & Champagne at Eiffel Tower and Moulin Rouge PinSource: Lukas Gojda / shutterstockMoulin Rouge Paris is referred to as the City of Lights, and on this evening combo-tour you’ll understand why. The city comes alive at night with lights, tourists and city residents looking to unwind, dine, and share a few drinks with friends and family. This well-planned and value-loaded tour includes many of the city’s must-see sites such as dinner at the 58 Tour Eiffel restaurant. There’s a Seine cruise as well, and the land portion of the tour includes visits to the Notre Dame Cathedral and the Louvre, after which it’s off to Moulin Rouge for a little bubbly and a lot of showgirls. View Prices & Reviews 13. Eiffel Tower Skip-the-Line Admission and Seine River Cruise PinSource: Feel good studio / shutterstockTourists Walking under Eiffel Tower On busy days the lines leading into the Eiffel Tower can make it seem like time is standing still. By booking a tour such as this one, which includes a skip-the-line feature, guests can make the most of their limited time, and leave less savvy tourists in the dust. The tour includes access to the viewing area on the tower’s second floor, and once participants have had their fill of the dramatic vistas, it’ll be time to head off to the river cruise portion of the tour. On both portions of the tour you’ll be accompanied by a professional guide who’ll describe the things you’re seeing and why they’re so noteworthy. View Prices & Reviews 14. Eiffel Tower and Food-Tasting Walking Tour PinSource: Page Light Studios / shutterstockRodin’s Gardens For adventurous foodies, Paris is a city with unlimited possibilities, and this walking Eiffel Tower and food tour is a pleasant mix of exercise, history and world-class food. The tour’s top attractions are the Eiffel Tower, Les Invalides and Rodin’s gardens. Along the way, you’ll learn about the city’s history and will enjoy multiple stops to sample local cheese, pastry and other delectable tidbits. To promote an intimate atmosphere, tour size is limited to 8 guests. The tour lasts about 3 hours and includes at least three tastings, a complimentary drink and guide. Hotel pickup is an option but must be scheduled in advance. View Prices & Reviews 15. Paris, Eiffel Tower Lunch and Louvre Tour from London by Rail PinSource: Netfalls Remy Musser / shutterstockLouvre Museum If you’re staying in London but are dying to visit Paris and see its most iconic sites, then this Eurostar rail-trip would be an unforgettable way to visit the City of Lights. The tour includes all the highlights that you’d expect, such as the Arch de Triomphe, Champs-Elysees, and of course the Eiffel Tower. You’ll enjoy a hearty lunch on the tower’s second floor before heading off to see more sights. Every portion of the tour is guided, so you won’t need to bother yourself with pesky details, and after a long but unforgettable day you’ll be deposited back in London. View Prices & Reviews Facebook Twitter Pinterest LinkedIn Categories France Tags Paris 15 Best Eiffel Tower Tours: Night Bike Tour with Skip-the-Line Ticket to Eiffel Tower 3-Course Lunch at 58 Tour Eiffel Restaurant Eiffel Tower Summit Tour by Elevator Paris and Eiffel Tower Small-Group Segway Sightseeing Tour Eiffel Tower Stair Climb with Optional Summit Access City Tour with Eiffel Tower Lunch and Versailles Tour Eiffel Tower Dinner and Seine River Cruise Private Guided Night Tour of Paris by Citroën 2CV Paris Bus Tour, Eiffel Tower Lunch and Seine Cruise Eiffel Tower Wedding Vow Renewal with Photo Shoot Full-Day Eiffel Tower and Seine River Cruise with Lunch Tour Dinner, Cruise & Champagne at Eiffel Tower and Moulin Rouge Eiffel Tower Skip-the-Line Admission and Seine River Cruise Eiffel Tower and Food-Tasting Walking Tour Paris, Eiffel Tower Lunch and Louvre Tour from London by Rail Further Reading15 Best Things to Do in Fairfield (AL)15 Best Things to Do in Antibes (France)15 Best Things to Do in Madera (CA)15 Best Things to Do in Koh Kong (Cambodia)15 Best Resorts in Lake Geneva Recent Posts 15 Best Things to Do in Johannesburg 15 Best things to do in Bloemfontein 15 Best things to do in Port Elizabeth 15 Best things to do in Pretoria 15 Best things to do in Durban © The Crazy Tourist 2023 viator.com A virtual tour of the Eiffel Tower – La tour Eiffel Skip to main content Tickets Prices & Times Planning a smooth visit Explore Explore The Esplanade 1st Floor 2nd Floor The Top The Gardens The Tower Restaurants & gift shops News Agenda Search EN Fermer le sélecteur de langue Français English Español Italiano Deutsch Português 中文 日本語 عربي Home All the news Events Works 130 years History and culture Recreation Visit Agenda A virtual tour of the Eiffel Tower Recreation Tuesday 14 April 2020 Modified the 27/12/23 Facebook Twitter Whatsapp Email Take a virtual trip to the heart of this emblematic Parisian monument and see the Eiffel Tower like you’ve never seen it before. With a first-person perspective, panoramas, and an interactive historical journey, we have brought together the very best virtual tours of the Iron Lady to offer our readers an extraordinary immersive experience. A full, virtual reality tour of the Eiffel Tower On the occasion of the Eiffel Tower’s 130th anniversary, TV5 Monde created a 360° virtual reality tour that reveals every aspect of the Tower in 3 minutes, featuring sunrise from the Champ-de-Mars and a panoramic ascent to the top, both inside and out. See the Eiffel Tower as if you were there, and much more! TV5 Monde takes you beyond the summit and behind the scenes to discover an unrivaled view of the French capital. Panoramic views from the Eiffel Tower on the mobile tour guide Our new mobile tour guide has the best panoramic views from the Eiffel Tower, both day and night. So even if you’re not at the Eiffel Tower, don’t wait to discover it! The guide let’s you admire Paris as if you were on the 2nd floor, or at the Tower’s summit. Use the arrows on the edges of your screen to navigate from the esplanade to the summit in the Tower’s mobile guide. You can choose “panorama” mode for views from the 2nd floor and the summit. Scan the horizon to the right or left, activate night mode, and zoom in to see Notre-Dame cathedral, Place de la Concorde, the Hôtel des Invalides, and many other Parisian monuments. Don’t miss this comprehensive, high-definition experience that is sure to amaze you! Tip: click on the icon at the bottom of your screen and easily identify the points of interest visible from the different floors of the Eiffel Tower. They are accompanied by a brief description to learn more about what surrounds you! View of the Champ-de-Mars from the summit. View of Trocadero from the 2nd floor The Eiffel Tower explained by Google Arts and Culture Google Arts and Culture is a free service that allows you to visit museums and monuments online, making art and culture more accessible than ever! In partnership with Google Arts and Culture, the Eiffel Tower offers interactive historical journeys to discover the hidden secrets of this world-renowned monument steeped in history. The different exhibits on various themes will transport you to the heart of Paris in the 1900s, with breathtaking images that showcase the know-how of the time. Explore the monument After enjoying the panoramic views from the Tower and the historical exhibits, complete your virtual tour directly on our website, under the Discover and Monument tabs, that allow you to explore all there is to know about the Tower. – The “Explore” section presents the particularities of the gardens and each floor of the Tower. – The “The Tower” section tells the complete history of the Eiffel Tower, in all its aspects, from its birth to its elevators, lighting, scientific research, and much more. Follow the Eiffel Tower on social networks !FacebookTwitterInstagram You liked this article ? ? Share it Facebook Twitter Whatsapp> Email> Tourism Book a ticket Save time, buy tickets online Buy a ticket Opening times & Ticket prices Today : 09:30 – 00:00 Price :28.30€ Take Paris’ most spectacular ride to the top for €28.30 or less (€28.30 for adult ticket with access to top by lift). For more information The Eiffel Tower All the news Recreation A virtual tour of the Eiffel Tower On the same theme Stay at home: discover the Eiffel Tower without moving In the context of the COVID-19 outbreak and the latest government health measures, the Eiffel Tower is closed from March 13th, 9pm, for an indefinite period of time. Events Everything you need to know about the Eiffel Tower at night Dusk transforms the Eiffel Tower! In this article we offer you a unique immersion into everything related to the Eiffel Tower at nighttime: lighting, image rights, tour experience, and more. History and culture 15 essential things to know about the Eiffel Tower Where we answer 15 of the most popular and fascinating questions about the Eiffel Tower. History and culture Prices& Times Accessmap Haut de page Book a ticket Save time, buy your tickets online Buy a ticket Home TOUREIFFEL.PARIS THE OFFICIAL WEBSITE OF THE EIFFEL TOWER A website owned by Sociéte d’Exploitation de la tour Eiffel Access map Contact FAQ Jobs Press Companies Schools Professionals in the Tourism Industry SETE Mairie de Paris Legal information Data protection policy Cookies Credits Follow us on Youtube Facebook Twitter Linkedin Instagram Home Prices & Times Planning a smooth visit Explore Explore The Esplanade 1st Floor 2nd Floor The Top The Gardens The Tower Restaurants & gift shops News Agenda Visiting the Eiffel Tower in 2024: Tickets, Tours & Time Saving Tricks – Earth Trekkers ABOUT CONTACT US Navigation Start HereDestinationsItinerariesUS National ParksHikingBlog SearchStart HereDestinationsItinerariesUS National ParksHikingBlog SearchVisiting the Eiffel Tower in 2024: Tickets, Tours & Time Saving Tricks Julie Last updated: December 16, 2023 France 2 Comments Facebook Pinterest TwitterThere are just a few buildings in the world that evoke the same sense of awe, wonder, and romance as the Eiffel Tower. For many, a trip to Paris would be incomplete without a visit to this iconic landmark. In this guide, we uncover the best way to visit the Eiffel Tower, with tips on how to avoid a long wait in line, where to dine with a view, and whether or not it is worth it to visit all three levels.About Our ExperiencesWe visit Paris frequently and have visited the Eiffel Tower a handful of times. On our most recent visit (September 2023) we visited the Eiffel Tower twice, in the morning and at sunset, so we could write a comprehensive guide on how to visit the Eiffel Tower.Table of Contents Toggle5 Tips for Visiting the Eiffel TowerInteresting Facts about the Eiffel TowerThings to Do at the Eiffel TowerThe EsplanadeFirst FloorSecond FloorThird FloorThe Gardens and Champs de MarsHow to Get to the Eiffel TowerEntrances into the Eiffel TowerEiffel Tower Tickets & How to Skip the LineHow to Skip the Line at the Eiffel TowerEiffel Tower Itinerary1. Security Check2. Purchase Your Ticket (optional)3. Take the Lift or the Stairs4. Time on the Eiffel Tower5. Exiting the Eiffel Tower6. After Your VisitBest Time to Visit the Eiffel TowerSkip the Line Tours of the Eiffel TowerFrequently Asked Questions5 Tips for Visiting the Eiffel TowerBefore we get into the history of the Eiffel Tower, things to do, ticket types, etc., here is a quick glance at the most important things to know when planning your visit.1. For the best experience, book your tickets online in advance on the official website. This is the cheapest way to visit the Eiffel Tower and avoid a wait in line. Tickets go on sale 60 days in advance.2. If tickets are sold out on the official website, consider booking a tour. Tours costs a little more but they save you a wait in the ticket line, which can be very long, especially in the summer. We took this tour, which is basically a guided tour to the second level, one of the cheapest, quickest tours we found of the Eiffel Tower.3. If you only have time for one level, the second level is the best. It’s the quickest to get to by elevator and the view is amazing.4. If you want to add on a dining experience, Madame Brasserie is an upscale restaurant on the first level with a view of the Trocadero and Jules Verne is a Michelin-starred fine dining restaurant on the second level. Make your reservations in advance.5. The Paris Museum Pass is not accepted at the Eiffel Tower.Interesting Facts about the Eiffel TowerThe Eiffel Tower stands in Champs de Mars and is named after Gustav Eiffel, the engineer in charge of the project. It was constructed for the 1889 World’s Fair, to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the French Revolution.When it was completed, the Eiffel Tower was the tallest man-made structure in the world. It held this title until 1930, with the completion of the Chrysler Building in New York City.The Eiffel Tower was only intended to stand for 20 years. However, it became such an important tourist site, and a valuable radiotelegraph station, that it was never dismantled.Now, the Eiffel Tower is one of the most visited monuments in the world. In 2022, 5.9 million people visited the Eiffel Tower. In 1991, it was named as part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site “Paris, Banks of the Seine.”The Eiffel Tower is repainted by hand every 7 years. Its color has changed over the years, and it was originally painted a reddish-brown color, then to a golden yellow in 1892, and then back to red in the mid-1900’s. Currently, it is being repainted again, in preparation for the summer 2024 Olympics, in a golden-brown color.Each night, the Eiffel Tower sparkles, with the twinkling of thousands of lights. The light show lasts for five minutes at each hour, starting at sunset.Things to Do at the Eiffel TowerThe Eiffel Tower has three levels to visit, as well as a Michelin-starred restaurant (Jules Verne), an upscale restaurant (Madame Brasserie), plus a long list of cafes and souvenir shops.You can visit all three levels, or just one or two, traveling up and down the Eiffel Tower either by elevator or by taking the stairs.The EsplanadeThe Esplanade is the area that sits under the Eiffel Tower. This is where you will board the elevator or climb the stairs, purchase your tickets (if you did not do so in advance), or get a snack or drink at one of the cafes.The south pillar on the Esplanade | How to Visit the Eiffel TowerFirst FloorGetting Here: Steps up from the Esplanade or elevator or steps down from the second floor.The first level is the largest level of the Eiffel Tower. On this level is a large outdoor terrace with a cocktail bar and café, Madame Brasserie (an upscale restaurant with a view of the Trocadéro), boutique souvenir shops, and a glass bottom floor.We had lunch at Madame Brasserie and recommend it if you want to spend some extra time on the Eiffel Tower. If you make a reservation in advance, request a window seat, where you get a great view of the Seine River and the Trocadéro.View from the first floor (photo taken near sunset). Another view from the first floor Madame Brasserie | How to Visit the Eiffel Tower Lunch at Madame BrasserieA lot of people skip this level. I do agree that the second level has the best view, but the view from the first level is also very nice. Since this level is so large, and gets less visitors, it also doesn’t feel as if it is packed with visitors.Second FloorGetting Here: Steps or elevator from the EsplanadeThe second floor of the Eiffel Tower is where (in our opinion) you get the best view from the Eiffel Tower. You are just high enough to gaze across Paris, but not so high that feel like you are floating above the city. This level is just large enough that visitors can spread out.The second floor | How to Visit the Eiffel Tower View from the second floor | How to Visit the Eiffel Tower Second floor of the Eiffel TowerJules Verne, a Michelin-starred restaurant, is located on this level. This is the Eiffel Tower’s best dining experience, but you will need to make a reservation at least a few months in advance.You can also shop in the souvenir shops or grab a bite to eat at The Buffet or the macaron shop.Eiffel Tower gift shopPRO TRAVEL TIP: If you plan to take the elevator (rather than climbing the steps), from the Esplanade you will ride the elevator to the second level, bypassing the first level. Once your visit to the second level is finished, you can either ride the elevator to the 3rd or 1st levels.Third FloorGetting Here: Elevator from the second floor (there are no steps to the third floor)The very top of the Eiffel Tower is the smallest, most crowded level. Visiting the third level requires an additional fee, or add-on to the standard Eiffel Tower ticket (more on this later).To get here, you will ride the elevator from the second level. There is usually a line for this, as the number of people on the third level is limited. Be prepared to wait in line for anywhere from a few minutes to an hour.The third level can periodically close due to weather conditions or elevator malfunctions (it closed during one of our visits). If this occurs, and you already paid for a ticket, your extra fee for the 3rd level will be refunded.On this top level, there are two sections. The lower level is enclosed in glass. Take the steps to the upper, outdoor level, so you can take better photos. You can also see Gustav Eiffel’s office and have a glass of champagne.This level, since it is so small, is very crowded. If you don’t want to spend the extra time or money, I don’t think it is worth going all of the way to the third level.View from the top floor | How to Visit the Eiffel Tower The Arc de Triomphe from the summit of the Eiffel Tower The third floor | How to Visit the Eiffel TowerThe Gardens and Champs de MarsSurrounding the base of the Eiffel Tower are the Gardens, a nice place to go for a stroll and take a photo looking up at the Eiffel Tower.Champ de Mars is the park that sits beside the Eiffel Tower. It’s definitely worth the stroll as you get one of the best views of the Eiffel Tower from here.How to Get to the Eiffel TowerBy Metro: Bir-Hakeim, line 6, 11-minute walk; Ecole Militaire, line 8, 16-minute walk; Trocadero, line 9, 16-minute walkYou can also get here by bus (line 82 and 42), by taxi or ride share app (like Uber), line C on the RER, or by boat.Entrances into the Eiffel TowerThere are two entrances into the Esplanade of the Eiffel Tower. Entrance 1 is on the south corner and Entrance 2 is on the east corner. Entrance 2 tends to be a little less crowded, according to the official website. We entered through the east entrance and on both visits in early September, there was no line, both in the morning and evening.This entrance is a security entrance, not a ticketed entrance. You will go through airport style security. Once through the security check, you will enter the Esplanade. From here, you can get in line for the stairs or elevator (if you already purchased your ticket online in advance) or get in the ticket line.Eiffel Tower Tickets & How to Skip the LineThere are four ticket types for the Eiffel Tower. Which one you choose depends on how many levels you want to visit and whether you want to take the stairs or elevator. Taking the stairs is cheaper and almost always has a shorter line.Second Floor Access via the Stairs: This is the cheapest option. Tickets cost €11.30. You will take the stairs to the first and second floors only. There are 327 steps to the first level and 347 steps to the second level.Second Floor Access via the Lift: €18.10; visit the first and second levels using the elevatorTop Floor Access via the Lift: €28.30; elevator access for all 3 floors of the Eiffel Tower.Top Floor Access via Stairs and the Lift: €21.50; take the stairs to the first and second floors and ride the elevator to the third floor.Note: The Paris Museum Pass is not accepted at the Eiffel Tower.How to Skip the Line at the Eiffel TowerTo skip the ticket line, purchase you ticket online in advance on the official website.With an online ticket, once you cross the first security check, you will get in line for the lift or the stairs, with no need to get into the ticket line.Tickets for the lift go on sale 60 days in advance and tickets for the stairs go on sale 14 days in advance. If you will be visiting Paris in June, July, August, and early September, plan on purchasing your tickets as soon as they become available. We were unable to get tickets online in advance (we attempted this 30 days before our visit in September), and since they were sold out, so then we took this tour to avoid the ticket line.However, once in Paris, lines were relatively light at the Eiffel Tower. We visited the Eiffel Tower at two different times of the day during the second week of September and there was less than a 10-minute wait in the ticket line.Summer is the busiest time to visit the Eiffel Tower (especially July and August), followed by holidays such as Easter and Christmas. I highly recommend purchasing your tickets online in advance as soon as they become available for these time periods. In the shoulder and off season, if online tickets are sold out, you can take your chances that the line will be short, or join a tour, just to play it safe.PRO TRAVEL TIP: If you couldn’t purchase your tickets online in advance and have no desire to take a tour, then book a reservation at Madame Brasserie or Jules Verne. Your meal includes a ride on the lift to the restaurant, so you’ll bypass the ticket line.Eiffel Tower ItineraryHere is a basic timeline for a visit to the Eiffel Tower, from entering the Esplanade to visiting its multiple levels.1. Security CheckThe first thing you will do is to go through airport style security at the south or east entrances into the Esplanade.There are two lines here, one for visitors with tickets (green flag) and one for visitors without tickets. If you have a ticket, get here 15 minutes early (get here at 10:45 am for an 11:00 am ticket). If you don’t have a ticket, your wait could be as little as a few minutes to much longer during peak season.2. Purchase Your Ticket (optional)If you do not have a ticket for the Eiffel Tower, get in line to make your purchase. Again, your wait could be as little as a few minutes to as much as 2 hours during peak season.3. Take the Lift or the StairsIf you have a ticket for the lift, get into line at the east or west pillars. If you will be taking the stairs, these are located on the south pillar.We’ve done both, the stairs and the lift. If you have the energy, the stairs tend to be a little bit faster, since there usually is no line.If you have a lift ticket, the lift skips the first level and goes directly to the second level. If you have a ticket to visit the third level, I recommend getting in line for this as soon as you reach the second level. Lines can be long and with the possibility of closure, it’s best to visit the 3rd level first (our tour guide also recommended this same plan of attack).4. Time on the Eiffel TowerThe amount of time you will spend on the Eiffel Tower can range quite a bit, depending on how many levels you visit, queues, and whether or not you plan to add on Madame Brasserie or Jules Verne.Most visits last 1 to 2 hours, which includes all 3 levels if lines are short (2 to 3 hours during peak season, especially if you plan to visit the third floor). Lunch or dinner at Madame Brasserie or Jules Verne adds another 2 hours.5. Exiting the Eiffel TowerTake the lift or the stairs to the Esplanade. The exits are located on the west and north corners of the gardens.6. After Your VisitOnce you are finished, here are a few things to do nearby:Trocadéro: Walk across Pont d’léna to the Trocadero for an iconic view of the Eiffel Tower.Carrousel: Ride the carrousel located next to the Eiffel Tower (it is located between the Eiffel Tower and the Seine River).Champ de Mars: Take a stroll through Champ de Mars, the large green space next to the Eiffel Tower.Frame Restaurant & Bar: It’s a short walk to Frame Restaurant & Bar, a restaurant with a view of the Eiffel Tower that serves great food and drinks.Rue Cler: Walk to Rue Cler and put together a picnic lunch or dinner of bread, cheese, fruit, and charcuterie. Find an empty park bench on Champ de Mars and enjoy your cheap but delicious French meal with a view of the Eiffel Tower.The view of the Eiffel Tower from the Trocadéro at sunset | How to Visit the Eiffel TowerBest Time to Visit the Eiffel TowerVisiting the Eiffel Tower is a wonderful experience from the time it opens in the morning until midnight.The best time to visit the Eiffel Tower is about one hour before sunset, so you can gaze out over Paris both as it is illuminated by the sun, but also get to see the lights twinkle on as the sun lowers across the sky. If you stay past sunset, you’ll be on the Eiffel Tower when its lights sparkle.We also like being on the Eiffel Tower midday, which is a great time to photograph the city from the tower.Skip the Line Tours of the Eiffel TowerIf you are unable to get tickets online in advance, here are a few tours of the Eiffel Tower that get great reviews.One of the cheapest options is to purchase an entrance ticket via a third-party provider. This tour, which includes your entrance ticket and the option to add on the third level, is one of the tours that we took. We met our guide at Champs de Mars Café, walked to the Eiffel Tower in a small group, the guide accompanied us to the second level, and then we were on our own. This costs just a few euros more than the ticket on the official website, so it’s a great option if you don’t want to spend a lot of money but also want to avoid the wait in the ticket line.We also took this tour, which is very similar to the one above. It’s a little more expensive but the guide did not waste any time getting us into the Esplanade and up to the second level. For that reason, I liked this one a little bit more.This is one of the highest reviewed tours of the Eiffel Tower. Visit the second level and/or summit with a guide on this 2-to-3-hour tour.This tour includes a visit to the Eiffel Tower summit (third floor) and a Seine River Cruise. Frequently Asked QuestionsHow long does a visit to the Eiffel Tower last?Most visits to the Eiffel Tower take 2 to 3 hours, which includes the time it takes to get through security. However, if you did not purchase a ticket online in advance, it’s possible that you could spend an additional 2 to 3 hours in line for tickets, especially during the summer, weekends, and holidays.Is there luggage storage at the Eiffel Tower?There is no luggage storage at the Eiffel Tower. If you have a suitcase, you will not be permitted to enter the security check to enter the Esplanade.Is the Eiffel Tower worth it?Absolutely. The Eiffel Tower is one of the world’s most iconic landmarks and for first time visitors, a trip to Paris would be incomplete without a visit to this iconic landmark. On a visit to the Eiffel Tower, you get one of the best views of Paris and have the option to add on memorable dining experiences at Madame Brasserie and Jules Verne.If you have any questions about how to visit the Eiffel Tower, let us know in the comment section below.More Information for Your Trip to ParisBEST OF PARIS: For a list of the top experiences in Paris, read our article Best Things to Do in Paris. We also have guides on where to get the best views of Paris, a walking tour to the highlights of the Louvre, a guide on where to stay in Paris, and a Paris Food Guide.THE LOUVRE: In our Guide to the Louvre, we cover the top things to see, a walking route through the Louvre, plus lots of tips to help you get the most out of your visit and avoid the crowds.VERSAILLES: In our Guide to Versailles, we cover the best things to do, how to get to Versailles, and the best way to visit Versailles without the crowds.PARIS ITINERARIES: If you have plans to visit Paris, don’t miss our 2 Day Paris Itinerary and 3 Day Paris Itinerary.EUROPEAN ITINERARIES WITH PARIS: If you want to visit Paris plus one to two other European cities, you have several great options. A 10 day trip to London and Paris makes a great trip if it is your first visit to Europe (or if you just want to visit two great cities). With 10 days, you can also visit Paris, Brussels, and Amsterdam or London, Amsterdam, and Paris.LONDON & PARIS: Learn how to plan a trip to Paris and London with our 10 Day London Paris Itinerary. You can also add in Amsterdam, visiting London, Amsterdam, and Paris in 10 days.Read all of our articles about France in our France Travel Guide. Note: This post contains affiliate links. When you make a purchase using one of these affiliate links, we get paid a small commission at no extra cost to you.All rights reserved © Earth Trekkers. Republishing this article and/or any of its contents (text, photography, etc.), in whole or in part, is strictly prohibited. Facebook Pinterest TwitterRelated Posts2 Days in Paris Itinerary: Best Itinerary for First-Time VisitorsParis Bucket List: 40 Epic Things to Do in ParisWhere to Stay in Paris in 2024: Best Hotels and Neighborhoods for Your Budget3 Days in Paris: The Perfect Itinerary for Your First Visit Eiffel TowerFranceParisparis guideunescoComments 2 MarieOctober 27, 2023 at 5:26 pmWe’re planning on visiting the Eiffel Tower in early March. The lift tickets online are timed. How long beforehand should we show up? Do they actually check the times and monitor the people coming or is it first-come-first-served as long as you have a ticket? And if we decide to buy a stairs ticket, can we add on a top ticket on the second floor or do we need to buy it on the ground floor before starting? Hopefully crowds then won’t be terrible, but right now morning tickets (for December) are selling out two months ahead within hours of being posted. Reply PostAuthor JulieOctober 27, 2023 at 5:44 pmHello Marie. The official website advises that you show up 15 minutes early. For example, for a 10 am ticket, arrive at 9:45 am. A little earlier would probably be fine. I just double checked the official website and you must purchase your ticket to the top in advance (it cannot be bought once you are on the tower). We had the same issue for our visit in September: online tickets were sold out, so we booked the tour. However, we visited the Eiffel Tower twice this past September and both times there was zero line at the ticket office. In March, I would expect that you would have the same experience, just as long as your visit doesn’t coincide with Easter, when Paris gets insanely busy. So, you can book your tickets in January. If you can’t get them online and it’s not Easter during your visit, then you can take your chances buying them onsite. You can buy a stairs ticket and the lift to the top online in advance. There are tours that will have this option as well. Have a great time in Paris! 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